Biotransformations in Organic Chemistry
Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body. It is also needed to render nonpolar compounds polar so that they are not reabsorbed in renal tubules and are excreted.
Biotransformation of xenobiotics can dominate toxicokinetics and the metabolites may reach higher concentrations in organisms than their parent compounds.
The metabolism of a drug or toxin in a body is an example of a biotransformation. Because of the high stereo- or regioselectivity combined with high product purity and high enantiomeric excesses, biotransformations can be technically superior to traditional chemical synthesis.